World war first and second causes and consequences The First World War is an international conflict in 1914 AD. It was fought by most of Europe, in addition to Russia, the United States, the Middle East, and other regions, in which the countries of the world were divided into two conflicting parties: the Axis Powers (the Central Powers) that included Germany and Austria, Hungary, Turkey, and the Allied Countries that formed from France, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States, which joined them in 1917, and this war ended with the defeat of the Axis powers in 1918.
Causes of World War I
Five main reasons led to the outbreak of the First World War:
Alliances for mutual defense between countries: Europe held several partnerships for mutual protection before the First World War. When one of the countries was attacked, the allied nations would defend it.
Imperialism: Some European countries imposed control over different regions to increase their wealth and power, as Africa and Asia were the points of conflict between European countries. These rivalries were a reason for the outbreak of the First World War.
Militarism: The world began an arms race, so by 1914 AD, Germany was the largest country with military power, and the naval forces of Great Britain and Germany increased; this trend fueled the world and made it ready for war.
Nationalism: Nationalism extended the war to all parts of Europe.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand: This assassination was the direct cause of the outbreak of the First World War when a Serbian group called the Black Hand sent a group to assassinate Archduke in June 1914, where a Serbian man named Gavrilo Princip assassinated Ferdinand and his wife while they were in Sarajevo, and this led to an announcement Austria-Hungary war on Serbia, Russia’s alliance with Serbia, in addition to Germany declaring war on Russia, and so the war expanded to include all countries participating in mutual defense alliances.
Results of World War I
The world war first and second causes and consequences Allies won under the armistice signed between the Allied countries and the Axis Powers, as Germany returned Alsace-Lorraine to France and gave up all the territories it had occupied since 1914. This war also resulted in treaties between the Axis and the Allied countries, as the Treaty of Versailles was signed. In Paris with Germany on June 28, 1919 AD, the Treaty of Saint-Germain with Austria on September 10, and the Treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria on November 27, in addition to the fall of four powerful empires in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and Turkey, and the rise of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia, And destabilize European society, and it is mentioned that the First World War is the cornerstone of World War II.
Causes of World War II
World War II is the conflict that occurred from 1939 AD to 1945 AD, in which almost every part of the world participated. The details of the competition consisted of the allies, namely: France, Britain, the Soviet Union, the United States, and the Axis powers, which are the countries: Germany, Japan, and Italy. With the participation of China as well, the war continued for 20 years, and the unresolved conflicts during World War I resulted in the deaths of between 40 million and 50 million people, making it the most bloody battle in history.
World War II began on the first of December 1939, when Germany began its invasion of Poland without declaring war, and France and Britain declared war on Germany and all members of the League of Nations except Ireland on December 3, and the German attack was crushed due to the use of Polish defenses For new technologies.
Treaty of Versailles
The world war first and second causes and consequences reaction of the Germans towards it is that one of the most important reasons for the Second World War is the Treaty of Versailles, which is a treaty signed in 1919 AD, and one of the essential things that called for it was to make Germany pay compensation for the devastation it caused in the First World War; Where he met Lloyd George from England, George Clemenceau from France, Woodrow Wilson from the United States of America, and Orlando from Italy to discuss how Germany would pay the price for the damages it caused, and Drew Wilson believed that Germany should sign a treaty. This treaty consisted of 14 articles, He thought it would achieve peace in Europe, and Lloyd George agreed with him. As for George Clemenceau, he wanted to take revenge on Germany and teach her a lesson to ensure that it would not cause another war, and Lloyd George knew that England would stand on the side of Clemenceau, so he wanted to find a solution between Wilson and Clemenceau. Germany ended up signing the Treaty of Versailles despite dissatisfaction with its provisions. One of the most prominent provisions of the treaty was for Germany to admit that it had committed a great sin for the start of World War I, and to accept the blame imposed on it from other countries, and that it must pay an amount of 6,600 million pounds sterling in compensation. As for the damage caused by the war, while the third necessary clause stipulates that Germany should disarm and that it should have a small army and naval ships only, and it is not permitted to acquire tanks, air weapons, or scraps. As for the regional conditions, some lands were confiscated from Germany and annexed to other countries.
The German people were resentful of this treaty because of the poverty they suffered, in addition to the lack of job opportunities and the increase in unemployment, the high prices of food and goods, the weakening of the country’s economy, and as a result of the people’s dissatisfaction with the government, the people decided to appoint Adolf Hitler as leader to break the treaty, and in 1933 AD he became Hitler as advisor to Germany, so he began secretly building the army and increasing its size, and started collecting weapons, and building warships and air weapons, and issued a law requiring compulsory military service, despite the fact that Britain and France were aware of Hitler’s actions; However, they saw that he could stop the communist threat and its spread in the West, and in 1936 AD the German army entered the Rhineland, and in 1938 AD Hitler entered Austria, and began his plan intending to restore the lands that had been confiscated from Germany before, and when Austria requested assistance from Britain and France And Italy, Hitler pledged that Anschlus would be the last stop for his expansion, but he did not fulfill his word, and after about six months he requested the restoration of the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia, Hitler met with the British Prime Minister three times during the month of September of 1938 AD and as a result of that the Munich Agreement, which stipulated Hitler confined himself to the Sudetenland and did not expand it. Once again, Hitler did not fulfill his word and invaded Czechoslovakia in 1939. He invaded Poland despite Britain and France threatening to take military action against Germany in an invasion of Poland.
The emergence of dictatorial regimes in many countries of the world
The fascist movement appeared in Italy in 1922, and Mussolini and the fascist party came to power; and fascism was considered a strong central government, and it had a tremendous military character supported by a sense of nationalism, which encouraged conflict as a means of social improvement, and by 1935 AD Mussolini had transformed Italy To an authoritarian state, and in the period 1933-1943 AD, the Nazi movement appeared to take over Germany under Hitler’s leadership, and his rule turned into a dictatorial regime, and he was hostile to the Jews to a large degree.
Recession and the global economic crisis
The Great Depression and decline in the global economy began in 1929 AD and continued until 1939 AD. This global economic crisis played a significant role in World War II, as citizens were outraged due to extreme poverty, such as what happened in Japan and high unemployment as happened in Germany, which led them to accept dictatorial governments that allowed theft and plunder from other countries. Hitler was at the head of the leaders who seized power by directing the anger of citizens and their hatred for other peoples. It is worth noting that countries whose economic conditions were better than others did not provide a hand of assistance, especially to those countries under attacks like Abyssinia and Manchuria; To protect its interests; This increased the failure of the League of Nations to function at that time.
Japan’s invasion of China
Japan invaded China in 1931; As China was a weak state, Japan also established a state in Manchuria called Manchukuo in the same year, whose ruler was Emperor Bui, the last emperor in China. Japan’s invasion of China began with the bombing of many cities such as Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Nanjing. The Japanese army committed crimes. The warship was the worst in history.
The failure of the League of Nations
The League of Nations is an organization created in 1919 to preserve world peace. The League of Nations achieved great success in the beginning. However, in the late twenties, depression afflicted various parts of the world due to the economic crisis and the resulting unemployment, loss of income for companies, and the transfer of trade, and the League of Nations failed in imposing its control over countries in implementing their decisions. And he lost his confidence in the government, and most of them turned to the army, and then Japan invaded China; Where China was a country rich in resources and minerals; The matter that called on China to appeal to the League of Nations to assist it, and then the League of Nations asked Japan to withdraw and did not respond, and then the League of Nations called for a halt to trade with Japan; However, many countries did not want to risk cutting off trade with them, and then the League of Nations returned to its call for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria. Still, its response was to start from the League. In 1935 AD, Italy invaded Abyssinia, which appealed to the League of Nations to lend a hand for the inability to confront Italy. Which called on the League of Nations to condemn Italy and to impose restrictions on trade with it; However, this was not implemented, and Italy would be able to trade with non-member countries such as America, and Britain and France did not want to risk either and to stop the Italian aggression, Britain, and France decided to hold a meeting that resulted in Italy being able to own two regions of Abyssinia. In return for stopping the invasion of it, but public protest in Britain prevented this decision from being implemented, and these matters were among the most important reasons for the failure of the League of Nations; It did not succeed in the end in achieving world peace, and the League of Nations did not have authority over states to implement the decisions issued by them, such as stopping trade exchange with a specific country. There was no army affiliated with it, and it could not act quickly in emergency matters to stop any action. aggressive; Whereas taking any decision requires that all member states agree to it and agree among themselves to implement it, and it is worth noting that the Council of the League of Nations did not meet only four times during one year, and not all countries joined it as it was planned from the beginning so that some of the countries that joined She left her later
After the First World War, totalitarian and military regimes appeared in Japan, Germany, and Italy, where Germany was defeated, and Japan was keen to restore or increase the strength of Italy that was disappointed, which led to all forms of dictatorship that was adopted in the end to make the state supreme, and advocacy To expansion at the expense of neighboring countries, these three countries also positioned themselves as heroes against communism, thus obtaining at least partial tolerance from their actions early on from the most conservative groups in Western democracies, and it is also essential to desire peace on the part of democracies, which led to Its military unpreparedness, in addition to the fact that the defection of the United States of America weakened the League of Nations, and thus it was unable to strengthen its arms, in addition to the intensification of national competition due to the prolonged economic depression, the increase in fear and distrust, and making the masses vulnerable to the promises of the demagogues, and on the other hand they abandoned Great Britain and France about their policy of appeasement, and the establishment of an anti-aggression front, when Italy (April 1939) seized Albania and Germany (March, 1939) Chico Slovakia, Great Britain and France abandoned their policy of appeasement and the establishment of an anti-aggression front, which included alliances with Turkey, Greece, Romania, and Poland, and accelerated rearmament. Germany and Italy signed an entire military alliance (May 1939). After the Soviet-German non-aggression pact (September 1939), the German fear of a possible war removed Germany, and Germany was ready to launch an attack on Poland.
Effects of World War II
The Second World War led to the beginning of a new era, which was the emergence of two great powers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, and the global arena became bipolar, which led to the emergence of the Cold War, and it was named so because it focused on political sabotage and espionage without open war, and after that it was divided Europe to an eastern bloc led by the Soviet Union and a western bloc led by the United States, and some countries tried to stay out of the war through the non-collapse movement, and the two powers possessed nuclear weapons, which prevented the development of the Cold War into a hot one because of their possession of a deterrent against each other, and in addition to another aspect of the results that It appeared after the Second World War, the decolonization of the great powers, the granting of Indonesia its independence from the Netherlands, the freedom of India and the Philippines from the United States and some Arab countries, the victory of the Chinese Communists victorious from the Chinese Civil War, and the rise of the People’s Republic of China in 1949
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